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Programs Nr 5 -15 days program

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Duration: (15 days program)
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Day 1
Arrival at Khartoum International airport – transfer to your hotel for overnight.
Day 2
After having breakfast at the hotel, visit to the market then drive to visit the national Museum in Khartoum and then drive to Omdurman to visit the old market and visit to Khalifa’s house and EL Mahdi Tomb – at evening return to the hotel.
Day 3
Early breakfast and then drive to the North –East across an open sand plain inter sprees with valleys in two and half-hour drive to Nagaa, an important Meroetic Archaeological site. An additionally important site at this spot is the age old well, where strong young men and women from the Nomadic settlement, are drawing water from around the clock to water their flocks. The Temple of Apadamek (the deity of the Meroeties) is shown colorfully decorated with symbols and figures on the walls of the sand stone structure. Adjacent to the temple is the Roman Kiosk, which is architecturally typical of that of old Romans. It was presumably erected to serve as a rest house. Twenty minutes drive to the North-West from Nagaa is the next Meroetic site, the Mussawarat Assufra. It is situated in the centre of an expansive rich valley, surrounded by black volcanic mountains, where remains of ancient quarries can still be seen. The so called, great enclosure here is a labyrinth of numerous rectangular and square rooms and other different shapes of structure whose real purpose and function are still enigmatic. Some five hundred meters to the east of the enclosure, stands a massive temple renovated recently on the same original design and appearance. It is built of huge sand stone blocks, bearing the name of the Lion Temple. The outside walls of this structure are beautifully inscribed with Meroetic lithography. From here we proceed heading north to Shendi town (60 km) on our way to the ruins of the city of Meroe. Shendi is the traditional center Of the Jaaliyeen tribe, an Influential Arabic-speaking group whose feature prominently in the strife for the supremacy on the main Nile in the recent history of the Sudan. A short drive (40 km) North of Shendi, lies the ancient royal city of Meroe. More than twenty intact Pyramids, some of which have lately been maintained. Dominate majestically, the desert scene. The area is a royal burial place for the kings and queens of ancient Meroe. On the south-eastern side of the burial area stand a few more or less smaller Pyramids where the kings of even earlier Naptan period were buried. Further west, the public burial grounds are to be found, occupied by the remains of the common people of the day. Leaving here, on our way to the royal city, we visit the Sun Temple, symbol of the worship of Amun. West of the Pyramids, and to a short distance off the Nile, lies the Metropolis of Meroe, the royal city that encloses the relies of the royal palace, royal baths and few temples. Scattered all over this area are filings and pieces of glazed black iron and iron ore. Ancient Meroe is reputed to have been the earliest center any where in Africa, where Iron had been mined and refined.
Day 4
Wake-up early morning having breakfast and drive to Addamer (110 km to the north), an old town that has been the cradle of  the tradition religious education for centuries prior to modern schooling and also a desert market for camels and other desert live-stock, we cross the Nile here, then drive north west through Beyouda desert, heading to Marawe. A town of some significance on the bank f the Nubian Nile, the other side of Beyouda desert. The view along the way is that of semi-desert, interspersed with ranges of dead volcanic hills, huge boulders, scattered acacia trees, and short thorny bushes. Overnight in the desert.
Day 5
We resume the journey to meet the Nile again at Tangassy village, Tangassy is an sprawling riverine settlement with a popular live-stock market held once a week on Tuesday, and frequented by both farmers of the river and nomads from all over the Beyouda Desert. While in Tangassy, we visit the newly discovered Meroetic Tomb that sheds light on the controversial age old question: “what is the historical link between the Meroetic period and the rise of the Christian Kingdoms that sprang into the Sudan in the Fifth century AD.? From Tangassy we drive north following the Nile to Assaguy village, then swerve east again into Beyouda desert to visit the Christian monastery site at El-Ghazali. The monastery is one of the few relics so far still remaining of the historical Christian Sudan. From here we drive back again following the Nile in a northerly direction for the village of Gueiba, within the Nuri district. There we visit a number of Napatan burial sites and small-size Pyramids. Worth noting about this cemetery, is the well known statue of Teharga, the great Napatan King, now in the National museum in Khartoum was originally found here, buried under one of the Pyramids. We resume our drive northwards to the 4th Cataract, at the Northern U-bend of the river Nile. Standing high among clusters of rocks, the gorge over-looks a small traditionally built village of farmers and strips of vegetation along the bank of the Nile. We have lunch here and enjoy bathing and dosing in the afternoon sun on the rock slates and the sand in between. camping for overnight.
Day 6
we drive back to the crossing point below Marawe. Once on the opposite bank, we drive straight to Jebel Barkal (4 miles) to the south, to camp. The Jebel is a massive sacred mountain known as the main Temple of Amun (Deity of Egyptians and Sudanese at the time.) built in 1220 BC, that coincide with the period of the 19th Dynasty in Egypt. When seen from a distance, the huge granite mountain is shaped in the bust of the Deity Amun. At the foot of the Jebel Barkal stands the Temple of Amun supported by massive granite pillars which are inscribed with all Hieroglyphics, animal figures and Sphinx. Looking down from the mountain top, is a magnificent view of the Temple below. The sprawling Nile, green cultivated banks of groves of dates and other different fruit trees, crowd the view to the east. We tour the front of the mountain and the site overnight.
Day 7
Early wake-up breakfast and visit to Kurru (8 miles north), cemetery of early Napatan kings. Bianky is most prominent in Kurru cemetery. We return to the jebel area and visit Lower Barkal village by the river on a drive-through tour. Visit land marks in Karima town and the Suq. Karima is a railway terminal for trains coming from Khartoum and Port Sudan as well as a river one for steamers plying up & down the River Nile from Dongla. The market in Sudan is famous for dates, mangoes and citrate crops. We have lunch and leave for Dongola on the Moheila road crossing the Nubian desert. The features in this desert are of moving sands and rocky hard relief (every where around). The rocky hills and huge boulders have been clearly ripped up into unique fascinating shapes by way of millenniums of blowing north-easterlies. Overnight in the desert.
Day 8
Early wake-up having breakfast and proceeding along the few remaining kilometers of the Nubian desert, and after being this long in the scorched desert, the encounter with the great river is both reassuring and refreshing. A short drive north along the eastern bank, we arrive at the ancient city of Kerma, now a small town surrounded by groves of date-palm and guava. Recent archaeological researches have shown that Kerma civilization is clearly the earliest on the Sub-Saharan African soil (3000 – 2800 B.C.). The site of this ancient city lies near to the Nile and contain the Deffufa west. It is a religious building of unfired brick consisted of a Southern block raised some what above the rest of the structure. In spite of the lateral entrance and the internal staircase, the silhouette of a reconstructed mode of it, recalls an Egyptian Temple. Beyond the wall enclosing this religious center, lies the town itself with its houses built of unfired brick, its courtyards, and its circular stone-houses. But eastern Daffufa is a necropolis (grave-yard), that stand a good distance from the ancient site, on the edge of the desert. The tombs are marked by circles of black and white stones. Clay bowls are arranged in semi circles edges, some at the tombs, in which offerings were placed. Pottery, models of leaves fashioned in clay. There is a huge circular structure erected and used as a burial place, this tomb has a chapel decorated with tiles. We leave Karma and the Defuffa to drive North following the Nile to Ferraig village and the 3rd cataract. Camping overnight.
Day 9
Early wake up – having breakfast and drive to a near by hill to visit the ancient church at Messaida, this is Christian church built amongst large boulders of small rocky spur running west from J. Borja. This small well preserved, mud brick church is built against a massive boulder on which there are drawings of a large human figure with a spear, and two animal figures. While no good parallels of this drawing are known, a Meroetic date may be suggested. From there we drive to Tombos, a little distance to the north and visit sites of archaeological spots around, we drive back taking south direction. We drive past Assuleim area on the east bank past to opposite Dongola to cross the Nile to the town itself. We have a free evening in Dongola “Suq” with supper served in one of its popular restaurants. Eventually we drive east to Beer 6 (well No. 6)”15 km” in the western desert and put up for the night.
Day 10
Early wake up – having breakfast and drive to a near by hill to visit the ancient church at Messaida, this is Christian church built amongst large boulders of small rocky spur running west from J. Borja. This small well preserved, mud brick church is built against a massive boulder on which there are drawings of a large human figure with a spear, and two animal figures. While no good parallels of this drawing are known, a Meroetic date may be suggested. From there we drive to Tombos, a little distance to the north and visit sites of archaeological spots around, we drive back taking south direction. We drive past Assuleim area on the east bank past to opposite Dongola to cross the Nile to the town itself. We have a free evening in Dongola “Suq” with supper served in one of its popular restaurants. Eventually we drive east to Beer 6 (well No. 6)”15 km” in the western desert and put up for the night.
Day 11
After breakfast we drive to Sai Island across the Nile and, and spend most of the time walking among the archaeological sites on the Island which is described by archaeologists as a site that summarizes Sudanese ancient history throughout its different historical periods. Then we return to Soleb for overnight at the same camp as the night before.
Day 12
We drive up the river stopping at Cesseby to inspect its huge Temple held up by massive pillars. Also on this way we come to visit one of the ancient castles of the middle ages in Sudan The building some what intact, surrounded by its four stone walls with its back to the River. Back in Dongola, round about the evening time. We have lunch then drive up to beer (6) for over-night.
Day 13
leave early in the morning and then cross the river again to Asselaim and drive south for 15miles to Kawa to visit the grand Amun temple and the remains of the ancient city of Kawa and then drive on south to old Dongola the home of the famous ancient churches and Christian relics. We cross back again early afternoon, resume driving in the same direction to Adebba (45) minutes drive up the river. Here we have a short break to have tea and look around this busy provincial town. Then resume going south-ward through Beouda semi-desert to Khartoum, we arrive late in the evening and transfer to the hotel for overnight.
Day 14
Free day for shopping with a possibility to watch Daraweesh ceremony every Friday evening, back to the hotel arrange for a late departure
Day 15
Departure at early morning.
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